Heavyweight! Promote high-efficiency solar cells, renewable energy to produce hydrogen! The CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued the opinion of carbon da peak carbon neutral work!
How to achieve carbon peak carbon neutral?
Today, the state gave important guidance. (Photovoltaic) opinion points out that the overall green transformation of economic and social development as a leader, to energy green low-carbon development as the key, to promote advanced green low-carbon technology and experience as the principle, and strive to achieve the total installed capacity of wind power, solar power generation to more than 1.2 billion kilowatts and other goals. In addition, to increase the application of renewable energy buildings, to overcome high-efficiency solar cells, renewable energy hydrogen production and other technologies, in-depth research to support wind power, solar power large-scale friendly grid-connected smart grid technology.
The original opinion is as follows.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China State Council on the complete and accurate implementation of the new development concept to do a good job of carbon peak carbon neutral views
(September 22, 2021)
Achieving carbon peaking and carbon neutrality is a major strategic decision made by the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core to coordinate the two major situations at home and abroad, an inevitable choice to focus on solving the outstanding problems of resource and environmental constraints and achieving the sustainable development of the Chinese nation, and a solemn commitment to building a community of human destiny. In order to complete, accurate and comprehensive implementation of the new development concept, and do a good job of carbon peak, carbon neutral work, we now put forward the following views.
First, the overall requirements
(A) guiding ideology. Guided by Xi Jinping's thought of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, fully implement the 19th CPC National Congress and the spirit of the second, third, fourth and fifth plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee, thoroughly implement Xi Jinping's thought of ecological civilization, based on the new development stage, implement the new development concept, build a new development pattern, adhere to the system concept, deal with development and emission reduction, the overall and local, short-term and medium and long-term relationship, the carbon peak, carbon neutral and into the Economic and social development as a whole, with the overall green transformation of economic and social development as a leader, with green and low-carbon energy development as the key, accelerate the formation of resource conservation and environmental protection of industrial structure, mode of production, lifestyle, spatial pattern, and unswervingly take the ecological priority, green and low-carbon road of quality development, to ensure the timely achievement of carbon peak, carbon neutral.
(B) Working Principles
To achieve the goal of carbon peak and carbon neutral, we should adhere to the principles of "national coordination, conservation first, two-wheel drive, internal and external access, and risk prevention".
--National coordination. The whole country will play a single game, strengthen the top-level design, give full play to the advantages of the system, implement the responsibility of the party and the government, and compact the responsibilities of all parties. According to the actual classification of local policies, to encourage initiatives and take the lead to reach the peak.
--Priority conservation. Putting energy resources conservation in the first place, implementing a comprehensive conservation strategy, continuously reducing energy resources consumption and carbon emissions per unit of output, improving input-output efficiency, advocating a simple and moderate, green and low-carbon lifestyle, and forming an effective carbon emission control valve from the source and entrance.
--Two-wheel drive. The government and the market work with both hands, build a new type of power system, strengthen science and technology and institutional innovation, and accelerate the green and low-carbon science and technology revolution. Deepen the reform of energy and related fields, play the role of market mechanism, and form an effective incentive and restraint mechanism.
--Free internal and external access. Based on the actual national situation, coordinate domestic and international energy resources, and promote advanced green and low-carbon technologies and experiences. Coordinate the external struggle and cooperation to address climate change, continuously enhance international influence and discourse, and resolutely safeguard China's development rights and interests.
--Prevent risks. Deal with the relationship between pollution reduction and carbon reduction and energy security, industrial chain supply chain security, food security and normal life of the masses, effectively respond to the economic, financial and social risks that may accompany the green low-carbon transition, prevent overreaction and ensure safe carbon reduction.
Second, the main goal
By 2025, the initial formation of a green low-carbon cycle development of the economic system, the key industries to significantly improve the efficiency of energy use. Energy consumption per unit of GDP decreased by 13.5% compared with 2020; CO2 emissions per unit of GDP decreased by 18% compared with 2020; the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption reached about 20%; forest coverage reached 24.1%, forest accumulation reached 18 billion cubic meters, laying a solid foundation for the realization of carbon peak, carbon neutral.
By 2030, the comprehensive green transformation of economic and social development has achieved remarkable results, and the energy utilization efficiency of key energy-consuming industries has reached the international advanced level. Energy consumption per unit of GDP will drop significantly; CO2 emissions per unit of GDP will drop by more than 65% compared with 2005; the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption will reach about 25%, the total installed capacity of wind power and solar power will reach more than 1.2 billion kilowatts; the forest coverage will reach about 25%, the forest accumulation will reach 19 billion cubic meters, and CO2 emissions will reach the peak and achieve a steady decline.
By 2060, the green low-carbon cycle development of the economic system and clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system is fully established, the efficiency of energy use reaches the international advanced level, the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption reaches more than 80%, the carbon neutral goal is successfully achieved, the construction of ecological civilization has achieved fruitful results, creating a new realm of harmony and coexistence between man and nature.
Third, promote the comprehensive green transformation of economic and social development
(C) strengthen the green low-carbon development planning to lead. The carbon peak, carbon neutral target requirements are fully integrated into the medium and long-term planning of economic and social development, and strengthen the support of national development planning, territorial spatial planning, special planning, regional planning and local planning at all levels. Strengthen the coordination between the various levels of planning, to ensure that the implementation of carbon peak, carbon neutral areas of the main objectives, development direction, major policies, major projects and other coordinated.
(D) Optimize the regional layout of green low-carbon development. Continuously optimize the layout of major infrastructure, major productivity and public resources, and build a new pattern of territorial space development and protection that is conducive to carbon peaking and carbon neutrality. In the implementation of major regional strategies such as the coordinated development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Bay Area, the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, strengthen the green low-carbon development orientation and task requirements.
(E) accelerate the formation of green production and lifestyle. Vigorously promote energy conservation and emission reduction, comprehensively promote clean production, accelerate the development of circular economy, strengthen the comprehensive utilization of resources, and continuously improve the level of green low-carbon development. Expand the supply and consumption of green low-carbon products, and advocate a green low-carbon lifestyle. Incorporate green low-carbon development into the national education system. Carry out demonstration creation of green low-carbon social action. Gather the consensus of the whole society and accelerate the formation of a good pattern of universal participation.
Fourth, the depth of industrial restructuring
(F) promote the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure. Accelerate the green development of agriculture and promote agricultural carbon sequestration and efficiency. Develop carbon implementation plans for energy, iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, petrochemicals and chemicals, building materials, transportation, construction and other industries and fields to reach the peak. Revise the guiding catalog of industrial structure adjustment with energy saving and carbon reduction as the guide. Carry out a "look back" on steel and coal production capacity and consolidate the results of production capacity removal. Accelerate low-carbon process innovation and digital transformation in the industrial sector. Carry out the construction of pilot parks of carbon peak. Accelerate the green transformation of trade circulation and information services, and enhance the low-carbon development of the service industry.
(G) resolutely curb the blind development of high energy-consuming and high-emission projects. New construction, expansion of steel, cement, flat glass, electrolytic aluminum and other high-energy-consuming high-emissions projects strictly implement capacity equal or reduced replacement, the introduction of coal power, petrochemical, coal chemical and other capacity control policies. Not included in the relevant areas of national industrial planning, no new refining and expansion of new ethylene, paraxylene, coal olefin projects. Reasonable control of coal-based oil and gas production capacity scale. Upgrade the energy consumption access standards for high energy-consuming and high-emission projects. Strengthen overcapacity analysis and early warning and window guidance.
(H) vigorously develop green low-carbon industries. Accelerate the development of a new generation of information technology, biotechnology, new energy, new materials, high-end equipment, new energy vehicles, green environmental protection, as well as aerospace, marine equipment and other strategic emerging industries. Construction of green manufacturing system. Promote the Internet, big data, artificial intelligence, the fifth generation of mobile communications (5G) and other emerging technologies and green low-carbon industries deep integration.
V. Accelerate the construction of clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system
(ix) strengthen the energy consumption intensity and total double control. Adhere to the energy conservation priority energy development strategy, strict control of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions intensity, reasonable control of total energy consumption, and coordinate the establishment of a total carbon dioxide emissions control system. Do a good job of industrial layout, structural adjustment, energy conservation review and energy consumption double control of the interface, the energy consumption intensity of the completion of the target situation is serious areas to implement the project to slow the approval of restrictions, energy consumption equal or reduced substitution. Strengthen energy conservation monitoring and law enforcement, strengthen the analysis and early warning of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission control targets, and strictly implement responsibility and evaluation. Strengthen the control of methane and other non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases.
(J) significantly improve the efficiency of energy use. Energy conservation throughout the entire process of economic and social development and in all areas, continue to deepen energy conservation in key areas such as industry, construction, transportation and public institutions, and improve the energy efficiency of data centers, new communications and other information infrastructure. Improve the energy management system and strengthen the energy-saving management and target responsibility of key energy-using units. Aim at the international advanced level, accelerate the implementation of energy-saving and carbon-reducing transformation and upgrading, and create energy-efficiency "leaders".
(K) strict control of fossil energy consumption. Accelerate the pace of coal reduction, the "14th Five-Year Plan" period to strictly control the growth of coal consumption, the "15th Five-Year Plan" period to gradually reduce. Oil consumption "Tenth Five-Year" period into the peak platform period. Coordinate the development of coal power generation and peak supply and regulation, strictly control the scale of installed coal power generation, and accelerate the energy-saving upgrade and flexibility transformation of existing coal power units. Gradually reduce or ban coal burning. Accelerate the development of shale gas, coal-bed methane, tight oil and gas and other unconventional oil and gas resources on a large scale. Strengthen risk control to ensure a safe and stable supply of energy and a smooth transition.
(XII) actively develop non-fossil energy. Implementation of renewable energy alternative action, vigorously develop wind energy, solar energy, biomass, ocean energy, geothermal energy, etc., and constantly improve the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption. Adhere to the centralized and distributed and give priority to promote the development and utilization of wind and solar energy in close proximity. Develop water energy in accordance with local conditions. Active safety and orderly development of nuclear power. Reasonable use of biomass energy. Accelerate the application of pumped storage and new energy storage on a large scale. Coordinate the development of the whole chain of hydrogen energy "production, storage, transmission and use". Build a new power system with new energy as the main body, to improve the grid on the high proportion of renewable energy consumption and regulation capacity.
(XIII) deepen the reform of the energy system mechanism. Comprehensively promote the reform of the electricity market, accelerate the cultivation and development of independent market players in the distribution and sale of electricity, improve the medium- and long-term market, spot market and auxiliary services market convergence mechanism, expand the scale of market-oriented transactions. Promote the reform of the power grid system, clear to consume renewable energy-based incremental distribution grid, micro-grid and distributed power market main body status. Accelerate the formation of new power installation development mechanism based on energy storage and peaking capacity as the basic support. Improve the market-based price formation mechanism for electricity and other energy varieties. Deepen the reform of electricity prices from the perspective of energy conservation, rationalize the structure of transmission and distribution prices, and fully liberalize the prices of competitive links. Promote market-oriented reform of coal, oil and gas, etc., and accelerate the improvement of the unified energy market.
Sixth, accelerate the construction of low-carbon transportation system
(XIV) optimize the transport structure. Accelerate the construction of comprehensive three-dimensional transportation network, vigorously develop multimodal transport, increase the proportion of railroads and waterways in the integrated transport, and continue to reduce transport energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions intensity. Optimize passenger transport organization, guide passenger transport enterprises to scale and intensive operation. Accelerate the development of green logistics, integration of transport resources and improve the efficiency of utilization.
(xv) promote energy-saving and low-carbon transport. Accelerate the development of new energy and clean energy vehicles and vessels, promote intelligent transportation, promote the electrification of railroads, promote the construction of hydrogen refueling stations, and promote the normalization of the use of shore power for ships in port. Accelerate the construction of convenient and efficient, moderately advanced charging and switching network system. Improve the energy efficiency standards of fuel vehicles and vessels, improve the energy efficiency labeling system for transportation equipment, and accelerate the elimination of old vehicles and vessels with high energy consumption and high emissions.
(XVI) actively guide low-carbon travel. Accelerate the construction of urban rail transit, bus lanes, bus rapid transit system and other large-capacity public transport infrastructure, and strengthen the construction of bicycle lanes and pedestrian walkways and other urban slow walking system. Comprehensive use of legal, economic, technical, administrative and other means to increase urban traffic congestion management efforts.
Seven, improve the quality of green and low-carbon development of urban and rural construction
(XVII) to promote urban and rural construction and management mode of low-carbon transformation. In urban and rural planning and construction management in all aspects of the full implementation of green low-carbon requirements. Promote the development of urban clusters, the construction of urban ecological and ventilation corridors, and improve the level of urban greening. Reasonable planning of urban construction area development goals, strict control of high-energy public building construction. Implement the green construction of the whole process of engineering construction, improve the management system of building demolition, and stop the big demolition and big construction. Accelerate the construction of green communities. Combined with the implementation of rural construction action to promote green and low-carbon development of the county and rural areas.
(18) vigorously develop energy-saving and low-carbon buildings. Continuously improve the energy-saving standards of new buildings, and accelerate the development of ultra-low energy consumption, near-zero energy consumption and low-carbon buildings on a large scale. Vigorously promote energy-saving renovation of existing buildings and municipal infrastructure in cities and towns, and enhance the level of energy-saving and low-carbon buildings. Gradually carry out management of building energy consumption limits, implement building energy efficiency measurement and labelling, and carry out performance evaluation of low-carbon development in the building sector. Comprehensively promote green and low-carbon building materials, and promote the recycling of construction materials. Develop green agricultural housing.
(XIX) accelerate the optimization of building energy use structure. Deepen the application of renewable energy buildings, accelerate the electrification of building energy and low-carbon. Carry out building rooftop photovoltaic action, and significantly increase the penetration rate of building heating, domestic hot water, cooking and other electrification. In northern towns and cities to accelerate the promotion of cogeneration central heating, accelerate the development of industrial waste heat heating on a large scale, actively and steadily promote nuclear power waste heat heating, and promote heat pumps, gas, biomass, geothermal energy and other clean low-carbon heating according to local conditions.
Eight, strengthen the green low-carbon major scientific and technological research and promotion and application
(20) strengthen basic research and cutting-edge technology layout. Develop science and technology to support carbon peak, carbon neutral action plan, the preparation of carbon neutral technology development roadmap. The use of "unveiling the list to hang" mechanism, to carry out low-carbon zero carbon and energy storage of new materials, new technologies, new equipment research. Strengthen the basic theories and methods of research on the causes and effects of climate change and ecosystem carbon sinks. Promote low-carbon frontier technologies such as high-efficiency solar cells, renewable energy hydrogen production, controlled nuclear fusion, and zero-carbon industrial process reengineering. Cultivate a number of national key laboratories, national technology innovation centers, and major science and technology innovation platforms for energy conservation and carbon reduction and new energy technology and product development. Build a carbon peak, carbon neutral talent system, and encourage higher education institutions to increase the number of carbon peak, carbon neutral and related disciplines.
(21) Accelerate the development and promotion of advanced and applicable technologies. In-depth research on smart grid technology to support large-scale friendly grid connection of wind and solar power generation. Strengthen electrochemical, compressed air and other new energy storage technology research, demonstration and industrialization applications. Strengthen hydrogen energy production, storage, application of key technology research and development, demonstration and large-scale application. Promote energy-saving and low-carbon technologies such as energy gradient utilization in parks. Promote the research and development and application of aerogel and other new materials. Promote the R&D, demonstration and industrial application of large-scale carbon capture, utilization and sequestration technologies. Establish and improve green low-carbon technology assessment, trading system and science and technology innovation service platform.
Nine, continue to consolidate and enhance the capacity of carbon sinks
(22) consolidate the capacity of the ecosystem carbon sink. Strengthen the spatial planning and use control of land, strictly adhere to the ecological protection red line, strictly control the occupation of ecological space, stabilize the existing forests, grasslands, wetlands, oceans, soil, permafrost, karst and other carbon sequestration role. Strictly control the scale of new construction land, and promote the revitalization and utilization of urban and rural stock construction land. Strictly enforce land use standards, strengthen the evaluation of land conservation and intensive use, and promote land-saving techniques and land-saving models.
(XXIII) enhance the incremental carbon sink of the ecosystem. Implement major projects of ecological protection and restoration, carry out integrated protection and restoration of mountains, water, forests, lakes, grasses and sands. Deeply promote large-scale land greening action, consolidate the results of returning farmland to forest and grass, and implement forest quality precision improvement projects to continuously increase forest area and accumulation. Strengthen grassland ecological protection and restoration. Strengthen the protection of wetlands. Promote the protection and restoration of marine ecosystems as a whole, and enhance the carbon sequestration capacity of mangroves, sea grass beds, salt marshes, etc. Carry out action to improve the quality of arable land, implement the national black land protection project, and enhance ecological agricultural carbon sinks. Actively promote the development and utilization of karst carbon sinks.
Ten, improve the opening to the outside world green low-carbon development level
(24) Accelerate the establishment of a green trade system. Continuously optimize the trade structure, vigorously develop high-quality, high-tech, high value-added green products trade. Improve export policies, strict management of high energy consumption and high emissions products exports. Actively expand the import of green low-carbon products, energy-saving and environmental protection services, environmental services, etc.
(25) promote the green "Belt and Road" construction. Accelerate the "Belt and Road" investment cooperation green transformation. Support the construction of "one belt and one road" countries to carry out clean energy development and utilization. Vigorously promote South-South cooperation to help developing countries improve their ability to cope with climate change. Deepen exchanges and cooperation with countries in green technology, green equipment, green services, green infrastructure construction, etc., and actively promote China's new energy and other green low-carbon technologies and products to go abroad, so that green becomes the "Belt and Road" color.
(26) strengthen international exchanges and cooperation. Actively participate in international negotiations on climate change, adhere to the positioning of China as a developing country, adhere to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, the principle of equity and the principle of respective capabilities, and safeguard the rights and interests of China's development. Fulfill the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Paris Agreement, publish China's long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategy, actively participate in the formulation of international rules and standards, and promote the establishment of a fair and reasonable global climate governance system with win-win cooperation. Strengthen international exchange and cooperation in addressing climate change, coordinate domestic and international efforts, and proactively participate in global climate and environmental governance.
XI, sound laws and regulations and standards and statistical monitoring system
(XXVII) improve laws and regulations. Comprehensively clean up the existing laws and regulations and carbon peak, carbon neutral work is not compatible with the content, and strengthen the coordination between laws and regulations. Study the development of carbon-neutral special laws, and urgently amend the law on energy conservation, electricity law, coal law, renewable energy law, circular economy promotion law, etc., to enhance the relevance and effectiveness of relevant laws and regulations.
(XXVIII) improve the standard measurement system. Establish and improve the carbon peak, carbon neutral standard measurement system. Accelerate the updating and upgrading of energy conservation standards, and expedite the revision of a number of energy consumption limits, mandatory national standards for energy efficiency of products and equipment and engineering construction standards, enhance the energy consumption limit requirements for key products, expand the coverage of energy consumption limit standards, and improve energy accounting, testing and certification, assessment, auditing and other supporting standards. Accelerate the improvement of regional, industry, enterprise, product and other carbon emission verification and accounting reporting standards, and establish a unified and standardized carbon accounting system. Develop greenhouse gas emission standards for key industries and products, and improve the standard marking system for low-carbon products. Actively participate in the development of relevant international standards, and strengthen the international convergence of standards.
(29) Improve statistical monitoring capabilities. Improve the statistical monitoring and measurement system of energy consumption in the fields of electricity, iron and steel, construction and other industries, and strengthen the construction of online monitoring systems for energy consumption of key energy-using units. Strengthen the construction of statistical accounting capacity of carbon dioxide emissions, and enhance the level of information technology actual measurement. Rely on and expand the natural resources survey and monitoring system, establish a carbon sink monitoring and accounting system for ecosystems, carry out background surveys and carbon stock assessments of forests, grasslands, wetlands, oceans, soils, permafrost, karst and other carbon sinks, and implement monitoring and assessment of the effectiveness of carbon sinks in ecological protection and restoration.
Twelve, improve the policy mechanism
(30) Improve the investment policy. Give full play to the government's investment guidance role, build a carbon peak, carbon neutral investment and financing system to adapt to the strict control of coal power, iron and steel, electrolytic aluminum, cement, petrochemical and other high-carbon project investment, increase support for energy conservation and environmental protection, new energy, low-carbon transportation equipment and organizational methods, carbon capture and storage projects. Improve the policy of supporting social capital participation and stimulate the vitality of green low-carbon investment by market players. State-owned enterprises to increase green low-carbon investment, and actively carry out low-carbon zero-carbon negative carbon technology research and development applications.
(XXXI) actively develop green finance. Sequentially promote the development of green low-carbon financial products and services, the establishment of carbon emission reduction monetary policy tools, green credit into the macro-prudential assessment framework to guide banks and other financial institutions to provide long term, low-cost funding for green low-carbon projects. Encourage developmental policy-oriented financial institutions to provide long-term stable financing support for achieving carbon peaking and carbon neutrality in accordance with market-oriented rule of law principles. Support eligible enterprises to list and refinance green low-carbon projects and expand the scale of green bonds. Study the establishment of a national low-carbon transition fund. Encourage social capital to set up green and low-carbon industry investment funds. Establish and improve the green financial standards system.
(32) improve fiscal and taxation price policies. Finance at all levels should increase support for the development of green and low-carbon industries, technology research and development, etc. Improve government green procurement standards and increase the procurement of green and low-carbon products. Implementation of environmental protection, energy and water conservation, new energy and clean energy vehicles and vessels tax incentives. Study tax policies related to carbon emission reduction. Establish and improve the price mechanism to promote the development of renewable energy on a large scale. Improve the policy of differentiated electricity tariffs, time-of-use tariffs and residential tiered tariffs. Strictly prohibit the implementation of preferential electricity prices for high energy-consuming, high-emission, resource-based industries. Accelerate the reform of heat supply metering and charging by heat supply. Accelerate the formation of a reasonably binding carbon price mechanism.
(33) Promote the construction of market-oriented mechanisms. Relying on the public resources trading platform, accelerate the construction and improvement of the national carbon emission trading market, gradually expand the coverage of the market, enrich the trading varieties and trading methods, and improve the management of quota allocation. Incorporate carbon sink trading into the national carbon emission trading market, and establish and improve the ecological protection compensation mechanism that can reflect the value of carbon sinks. Improve the carbon emission reporting and information disclosure system for enterprises, financial institutions, etc. Improve the paid use and trading system of energy use rights, and accelerate the construction of the national energy use rights trading market. Strengthen the integration of electricity trading, energy-use rights trading and carbon emissions trading. Develop market-based energy-saving methods, implement contract energy management, and promote energy-saving services.
XIII. Effectively strengthen the organization and implementation
(34) strengthen organizational leadership. Strengthen the Party Central Committee on carbon peaks, carbon neutral work of centralized and unified leadership, carbon peaks and carbon neutral work of the leading group to guide and coordinate the work of carbon peaks, carbon neutral. Support places with conditions and key industries, key enterprises to take the lead in achieving peak carbon, organize peak carbon, carbon neutral and first demonstration, explore effective models and useful experience. Carbon peak, carbon neutral and as an important part of the education and training system for cadres, to enhance the leadership at all levels to promote green low-carbon development skills.
(35) Strengthen the coordination. The National Development and Reform Commission should strengthen the coordination, organize the implementation of the carbon peak action plan by 2030, strengthen the planning of carbon neutral work, regular scheduling of all relevant departments in all regions to implement the carbon peak, carbon neutral target progress, strengthen tracking and evaluation and supervision and inspection, coordination and resolution of major problems encountered in the implementation. All relevant departments should strengthen coordination and cooperation to form a working force to ensure consistent policy orientation, step by step efforts to converge.
(Thirty-six) compact local responsibility. Implement the responsibility system of leading cadres for ecological civilization construction, local party committees and governments at all levels should resolutely carry the responsibility of carbon peak, carbon neutral, clear objectives and tasks, develop implementation initiatives, and consciously contribute to the achievement of carbon peak, carbon neutral.
(XXXVII) strict supervision and assessment. All regions should include carbon peak, carbon neutral and related indicators into the comprehensive evaluation system of economic and social development, increase the weight of the assessment, and strengthen the indicator constraints. Strengthen the carbon peak, carbon and the implementation of the objectives and tasks of the assessment, the work of outstanding areas, units and individuals in accordance with the provisions of the recognition and reward, the failure to complete the target areas, departments in accordance with the rules and regulations to implement the notification of criticism and interview accountability, the implementation of the situation into the central ecological environmental protection inspectors. All relevant departments in all regions to implement the situation reported annually to the Party Central Committee and the State Council.
A perovskite solar cell (PSC) is a type of solar cell which includes a perovskite-structured compound, most commonly a hybrid organic-inorganic lead or tin halide-based material, as the light-harvesting active layer. Perovskite materials, such as methylammonium lead halides and all-inorganic cesium lead halide, are cheap to produce and simple to manufacture. Perovskites have inherent properties such as broad absorption spectrum, fast charge separation, long electron and hole transport distance, and long carrier separation lifetime, making them very promising solid-state solar cell materials.
A perovskite is any material with a crystal structure following the formula ABX3, which was first discovered as the mineral called perovskite, which consists of calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3). Perovskites have a nearly cubic structure and the chemical formula is ABO3. Typically perovskite compounds have the chemical formula ABX3, where "A" and "B" represent cations and X is an anion bound to both. A large number of different elements can combine to form a perovskite structure. Using this compositional flexibility, scientists can design perovskite crystals with a variety of physical, optical, and electrical properties. Today, perovskite crystals are found in ultrasonic machines, memory chips and current solar cells.
Tandem solar cells are an important strategy to push the Shockley-Queisser (S-Q) efficiency limit of single-junction solar cells, it can be lower the cost per watt.